Is there really any evidence for six 24-hour creation days? Was Noah’s flood worldwide, and what were the results? Who was Cain’s wife? What about dinosaurs? Are there problems with Darwin’s evolutionary theory? Read this article in PDF format.
*Select Page references from “Reasons” by Josh McDowell
Continued from previous Creation study…
Gen. 8:22- Reassurance of how world will not end; not global warming, etc
Gen. 9:2- Reason for animals reaction to humans
Waters from above → Water Canopy
Water from below → Fountains of the deep, wells, etc Waters around → Oceans
Water canopy that served as a kind of ‘hyperbaric chamber’ came down in the Flood. Heard of Pangaea? (Gen. 1:9 seems to indicate this is true)
“Fountains of the deep bursting open” could have created higher mountains (Gen. 7:19) and caused Pangaea to break apart. The whole earth was in turmoil!
Evidence of a worldwide flood? (people probably only lived from Persian Gulf up to the Caspian Sea):
- V. 19- all high hills were covered, V. 22- all that was on the dry land died
- God didn’t need ark if it was only local; He could have moved 8 people to a new location
- Gen. 9:8-11 – God would have been making the covenant with Noah to never again send a local flood?
- Worldwide flood tradition comes from around the world, and in almost every ancient culture
- What sort of miracle kept all water in local area? (Mt. Ararat is 17,000 ft- and water was 15 cubits higher than this)
- Other scriptures on the flood include: Job 12:15; 22:16; Ps. 29:10; 104:6-9; Is. 54:9; Matt. 24:37-39; Luke 17:26,27; Heb. 11:7; 1 Pet. 3:20; 2 Pet. 2:5; 3:5&6.
- Worldwide flood also accounts for many of the so-called evidences of evolution
Flood Timeline: Gen. 7:11 (start)- Gen. 8:14 (end) = 1 year, 11 days (Noah’s time in ark)
Rock Strata and the Fossil Record
Fossil- A remnant or trace of an organism of a past geologic age, such as a skeleton or leaf imprint, embedded and preserved in the earth’s crust.
Explain sedimentary layers…
Evolutionary view → layers, each layer represents millions of years, fossils are found in every strata, typically smaller to larger.
Fossils require tremendous pressure to be formed.
When an animal dies, it immediately begins to rot- scavengers eat the animal and bacteria destroys it. Then the bones are either dissolved in the sea or weathered away on land.
This is why it is extremely hard to find fossilization today because it doesn’t happen naturally. And if you do find it, you can almost always point to a specific event that caused it.
For fossilization to occur, you must take away two agents:
- Biological scavengers
- Must be buried deep enough where scavengers and oxygen-dependent bacteria can’t get to it (no oxygen)
- Must be buried immediately or shortly after death
- High amount of pressure
Most liberal typical rate of deposition is .024 in/yr (evolutionists claim it was even slower in the past). This is not nearly deep enough. Also, doesn’t provide the pressure needed.
Take a fish- lots of fish fossils (ironically, these are the ones that don’t fit as well into the evolutionary model because sea life is found in all the sedimentary layers). To cover a fish with 2.5 in. of sediment would take 100 years. Even then, worms can get to this depth bringing bacteria and oxygen.
Looking at current fossils (especially large ones, like dinosaurs), tremendous amounts of sediment was required to preserve.
Examples of fast fossilization:
- Derek Ager, paleoecologist- lobster from Solenhofen Stone in Germany which was fossilized in the act of catching a small fish
- Charles Schuchert, Carl Dunbar- great slab of Hamilton Stone, found at Mt. Marion, NY. Now in State Museum at Albany. Preserves starfish who died hovering over clams they were in the act of devouring.
What about footprints?
Animal footprints preserved in the fossil record. As soon as footprints are left, wind, rain, etc, begin to destroy them- especially on a sandy beach or sand dune with waves and wind.
Obviously, they must be covered quickly by another material, and done so quickly, until the sand or mud (in which the footprint lies) turns to stone.
Let’s look at the flood:
- Provides the pressure needed- lots of force along with gravity associated with massive amounts of water coming from the sky and gushing out of the earth
- Lots of sedimentary deposition in a short time, this would provide the depth necessary to keep away biological scavengers and weathering. Like dinosaurs, who would need lots of sediment to cover them.
- Accounts for the speed of burial and fossilization. You can show in lab that fossils can form very quickly with rapid burial, ground water and minerals. (Human Finger- can see fossilized cartilage and blood vessels)
- Circulating water of flood (along with gravity) would naturally bury smaller organisms first and lower in layers and more mobile organisms, with the ability to temporarily avoid the flood, to be buried closer to the top
- Accounts for fish fossils found high in mountains. Sea life is found in strata all over the continents, even at high elevations and the tops of every major mountain range.
- Better accounts for sedimentary layers. Boundaries between strata are straight and abrupt. This would not be at all expected if each layer represented millions of years.
- Widespread strata- continent-wide sedimentary layers are visible (flood)
- Sedimentary- the strata are mostly sedimentary. This means that each layer was laid down by water. That the continents were raised up and down hundreds of time to create each sedimentary layer over millions of years, and yet the boundaries between the strata are straight and abrupt. This is hard to believe! No evolutionary based uniformitarian model can properly answer the fact that the layers are sedimentary layers with abrupt boundaries.
- Major mountain ranges are all found on the continents parallel to the ocean ridges.
In other words, they are found exactly where we would expect had the flood caused Pangaea to break up.
- Polystrate Fossils- Fossils that cross two or more sedimentary layers (strata). How could these trees have been fossilized if it took millions of years for each strata to form as evolutionary timeframes dictate? Yet, these are found on every continent all over the world. Some eroding mountainsides have exposed thousands of these together covering large numbers of strata which clearly had to be buried at one time. Whale found through layers of diatoms.
- Grand Canyon- supposed to represent the deepest exposed strata layers in the world. Supposed to be the best representation of rock layers. It’s interesting that less than half of the strata are actually seen and it’s not in the order science says it is and there are gaps where there are no strata from a presumed era. All over the earth, depending on where you go, there are strata layers missing, they are in completely different orders from one place to another, and some places have certain layers that others do not. There are layers, certainly, but the “column” is not evident or complete as it is taught anywhere on the planet. The Grand Canyon and other canyons supposedly took millions of years to be carved by the rivers running through them. Mud from the Mississippi river is dumped into the Gulf of Mexico at the rate of 80,000 tons per hour. Where is the mud from the Colorado
River as it carved the Grand Canyon for millions of years? It didn’t take a lot of time, it took a lot of water.
- Oil, Natural gas, coal – the fossil fuels that we use today are remnants of the flood. They are the remains of vegetation and animals buried during the time of the flood. The post flood earth is now buried by as much as two miles of water born sediment.
Note: Laboratory test have shown that buried plant material and moderate pressure and a little bit of heat can create coal in weeks, not millions of years.
- Tropical remains at poles- Tropical remains are found frozen at the poles, including Northern Alaska and Siberia, There are no forests containing these types of trees and vegetation even close to these areas. These are clearly remains of the flood that had been frozen or buried until they were washed to shore. Additionally, palm trees, pine trees, and tropical foliage in great amount are found frozen in the northern regions. They’ve found 90 foot plumb trees frozen in the ice 600 miles north of the Arctic Circle. They have ripe plumbs and healthy leaves, all frozen.
- Flood was necessary for fossilization- nothing else could have caused it to occur. The flood and the old earth view are mutually exclusive- if you believe in the flood, then you would expect lots of sedimentation. Can’t believe in both.
[Other: typical answer is that the organisms slowly sank into ocean, covered with other sediment. No! This is done through erosion, waves would have wiped them away.
Response: Maybe they hardened before entering wave zone, but waves erode solid rock, much more incomplete lithified sand or mud.
Quotes: 217-218 (218 first)
End with Coconino Footprints- Permian Coconino; Sandstone in northern Arizona- quote End with pg. 224-227]
No Transitional Fossils
If all organisms have arisen by slow, small modifications, we should find some of these transitional fossils! We have never found a creature with half-formed feet or a half- formed wing. (use monkey example?)
Evolutionists just say that the fossil record is incomplete. This is also what Darwin said. He proposed his theory of evolution on the basis that these transitional fossils would eventually show up. Evolutionists say that these half-evolved monstrocities lived, but were not preserved. (revisit lack of forethought)
(Quote- pg. 172)
Many paleontologists starting to believe that we have a complete fossil record because none of these supposed gaps have been filled in a century after Darwin’s time.
- If it’s complete, there’s a large % preserved, evolution is not supported
- If it’s incomplete, small fraction preserved, and what right does science have to fill these gaps with imaginary animals for which there is no evidence.
Many evolutionists now believe that evolution had to happen suddenly. WHAT??
There are no transitional links and intermediate forms in either the fossil record or the modern world. Therefore, there is no actual evidence that evolution has occurred either in the past or the present.
[A word about Neanderthal Man:
Called hominids, there were creatures that evolutionists believed to have been in-between ape and human. There were twelve original specimens they found. Nine were found to be extinct apes/monkeys. Three were actually modern human beings. Human skulls naturally vary in size and many other characteristics. They are also misshapen by certain diseases such as rickets, arthritis, Paget’s disease, congenital syphilis, and starvation. Variation or disease could lead many to think they are less than human.
Neanderthal Man- history:
First skull found in 1848- Forbes Quarry in Gibraltar. (Not recognized as Neanderthal until 1956, when another partial skeleton found near village of Neander in Germany.) Evolution was just being proposed, so scientists jumped on this as the missing link. Lots of doubt raised, but main one was renown scientist Rudolf Virchow (expert in disease and fossils), who diagnosed rickets in the Neanderthal bones, which accounted for seemingly simian cast.
In 1888, Galley Hill Skull, very modern-looking skull was found in rock strata believed older than Neanderthal. Other similar discoveries in 1855 in Ipswich, 1863 in Abbeville, 1932 in Kenya. Authenticity always questioned.
1939- Prof. Sergio Sergi proved that Neanderthal man walked erect as we do, not with ape-like crouch.
1947- Discovery was made that a Neanderthal was found to have lived in a cave after a modern man had inhabited it. Thus finally proving Neanderthal is not ancestor. Currently considered homo-sapien.]
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Law of science- basic, unchanging principle of nature; a scientifically observed phenomenon which has been subjected to very extensive measurements and experimentation and has repeatedly proved to be invariable throughout the known universe (e.g., the law of gravity, the laws of motion).
This is one of three Laws of Thermodynamics. This is a branch of physics which studies the efficiency of energy transfer and exchange
Thermo = “heat”, dynamic = “power”
1st Law– Matter/energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It may change forms, but the quantity remains the same in a closed system.
2nd Law (Law of Increased Entropy)- While quantity remains the same, the quality of matter/energy deteriorates gradually over time.
“Entropy” is defined as a measure of unusable energy within a closed or isolated system (the universe for example). As usable energy decreases and unusable energy increases, “entropy” increases. Entropy is also a gauge of randomness or chaos within a closed system.
Emmett Williams, Ph.D:
“It is probably no exaggeration to claim that the laws of thermodynamics represent some of the best science we have today. While the utterances in some fields (such as astronomy) seem to change almost daily, the science of thermodynamics has been noteworthy for its stability. In many decades of careful observations, not a single departure from any of these laws has ever been noted.”
As far as we can tell, these Laws are absolute. All things in the observable universe are affected by and obey the Laws of Thermodynamics.
Usable energy is inevitably used for productivity, growth and repair. In the process, usable energy is converted into unusable energy. Thus, usable energy is irretrievably lost in the form of unusable energy. As usable energy is irretrievably lost, disorganization, disorder, randomness and chaos increase.
2nd Law describes basic principles familiar in everyday life. Known as a universal law of decay; the ultimate cause of why everything ultimately falls apart and disintegrates over time. Material things are not eternal. Everything appears to change eventually, and chaos increases. Nothing stays as fresh as the day one buys it; clothing becomes faded, threadbare, and ultimately returns to dust. Everything ages and wears out. Even death is a manifestation of this law. The effects of the 2nd Law are all around, touching everything in the universe.
Decaying buildings. Massive structures may appear to be capable of lasting almost forever, but they will not. The need for ongoing repairs. Each year, vast sums are spent to counteract the relentless effects of this law (maintenance, painting, medical bills, etc.).
Ultimately, everything in nature is obedient to its unchanging laws.
This law observes the fact that the useable energy in the universe is becoming less and less. Ultimately there would be no available energy left. Stemming from this fact we find that the most probable state for any natural system is one of disorder. All natural systems degenerate when left to themselves. Outside forces can increase order for a time (through the expenditure of relatively large amounts of energy, and through the input of design).
However, such reversal cannot last forever. Once the force is released, processes return to their natural direction – greater disorder. (painting a house regularly)
Creates a problem for evolution
Universe is constantly losing usable energy. We logically conclude that the universe is not eternal. The universe had a finite beginning- the moment at which it was at its most ordered possible state (‘zero entropy’). Like a wind-up clock, which is winding down.
Evolutionism claims that over billions of years everything is basically developing UPWARD, becoming more orderly and complex. Naturalistic Evolutionism requires that physical laws and atoms organize themselves into increasingly complex and beneficial, ordered arrangements. Thus, over eons of time, billions of things are supposed to have developed upward, becoming more orderly and complex.
2nd Law says the opposite. It is well known that, left to themselves, chemical compounds ultimately break apart into simpler materials; they do not ultimately become more complex. The trend is towards simplication and disorder. Ultimately, when all the energy of the cosmos has become unusable, all molecules will move randomly, and the entire universe will be cold and without order. All experimental and physical observation appears to confirm that the Law is indeed universal, affecting all natural processes in the long run.
Evolution is simply not feasible. In fact, it is one of the most important reasons why various Evolutionists have dropped their theory in favor of Creationism, or at least that there is a Grand Designer. A number of scientists believe the 2nd Law, when truly understood, is enough to refute the theory of Evolution.
[Objection: The universe may be a closed system, but the earth is not. Evolutionists maintain that the 2nd Law does not prevent Evolution on Earth since the planet receives energy from the Sun.
They say that the sun’s energy helped create life on this planet.
True that open systems exchange heat, light, or matter with their surroundings. Earth is an open system, primarily because it receives outside energy from the Sun.
Is Energy the Key?
Compare a living plant with a dead one. Can the addition of energy make a completely dead plant alive again.
A dead plant contains the same basic structures as a living plant. It once used the Sun’s energy to temporarily increase its order and grow and produce stems, leaves, roots, and flowers – all beginning from a single seed.
If there is actually a powerful Evolutionary force at work in the universe, and if the open system of Earth makes all the difference, why does the Sun’s energy not make a truly dead plant become alive again (assuming a sufficient supply of water, light, and the like)?
What actually happens when a dead plant receives energy from the Sun? The internal organization in the plant decreases; it tends to decay and break apart into its simplest components. The heat of the Sun only speeds the disorganization process.
Certainly, the sun’s energy is not a sufficient explanation for life on earth.]
- If earth was anywhere close to being 4.5 billion years old, all mountains would be eroded into the sea. (explain erosion?)
- Lowest/slowest estimate for erosion is 2.4 cm per 1000 years.
- Continents eroded to sea level in 34 million years
- All ocean basins filled in 340 million years
- More likely it’s 6 cm per 1000 years- 13 million
Evolutionists can’t accept this, so they state there must have been consistent continental uplift and mountain building to keep up with erosion rate.
- Bias causes them to assume propositions that have no evidence whatsoever to back it up, no explanation as to why this or that happened at all
- Opposite direction! Evolution bases most of its theories on sedimentary layers, smaller fossils deeper in the layers- doesn’t fit with deposition.